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Kindseat ©Kindseat 2012

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Anatomy

The spine serves to provide support as part of our skeleton and also carries the spinal cord which is part of the Central Nervous System.  What is remarkable is the range of motion that it is capable of; bending forward and backward (in the sagittal plane), side to side (laterally) and twisting. Together with neck muscles, it also supports a massive 4lbs of head weight.


The diagram to the left shows the spinal column and the pelvis (left side removed). The pelvis (meaning Basin in Latin) comprises the sacrum, coccyx and the two hip bones.



The first thing you might notice is how curved the spine is. It’s far from being like ‘stack of children’s toy bricks’. This curve is achieved by each vertebra being a bit wedge shaped.   In between the vertebra are tyre shaped discs (intervertebral discs) which absorb shock loads and allow movement. These are surrounded by a muscle that gives movement and support.


In Meditation

Most meditators move at least a bit when meditating. This maybe to change posture to improve alertness or releasing previously hidden tensions.  I have noticed that there is sometimes a point in my meditation where, as I become more concentrated, my body starts sitting up straighter, more aligned; the body following the mind.

Meditation Posture

Ideally we are  looking for a posture that helps us stay relaxed and alert. This suggests that there should be no muscular strain, that the body should be in a position of natural poise.  In sitting, this starts from the base of the posture, the pelvis.  In texts on meditation posture and dancing this is often described as having the pelvis ‘level’ so that water would not tip over the edge of the basin.  One way to check this is to put your fingers under your butt between your seat (bench, cushion or chair) and feel where the sitz bones (the lowest part of the pelvis) are. When they are pointing downwards the pelvis will be level.


In an original study (“Sagittal plane alignment of the spine and gravity

A radiological and clinical evaluation” by Jean LEGAYE, Ginette DUVAL-BEAUPÈRE Acta Orthop.  the authors refers to an “optimal economic balance” being indicated by “no muscular electric activity observed in the posterior [or anterior] spinal muscles”


The projection of this gravity centre is 36.2 mm (S.D. 20.6) behind the line connecting the centers of the femoral heads. This expresses an optimal economic balance : under such conditions, no muscular electric activity is observed in the posterior spinal muscles. On the contrary, if anterior tilt of the trunk occurs and the projection of the gravity centre becomes more anterior, muscular activity in the posterior musculature is detected.


It is this “optimal economic balance” that we are  looking for in our meditation posture.

What happens when we are not in balance?

When in balance, each inter-vertebral disc has little or no correcting forces being applied to it. When the force of the centre of gravity of our body does not pass near the spinal cord the muscles have to work harder to stop slumping or falling back.  See the diagram from the the same study.

The Bio-mechanics of Meditation Posture

Introduction

While testing a prototype for a new meditation chair that has the same benefits of the Kindseat Meditation bench but taller, I became interested in the dynamics of what is happening when we sit.  As an engineer I am interested in the forces and stresses that are at work in a mechanism.  This article explores some of what happens as we change our sitting posture.

“Sagittal plane alignment of the spine and gravity A radiological and clinical evaluation” by Jean LEGAYE, Ginette DUVAL-BEAUPÈRE Acta OrthopBelg., 2005, 71, 213-220)


 Psoas muscle and lumbar spine stability: a concept uniting existing controversies. Critical review and hypothesis http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11189930


Rehabilitation of the stability function of Psoas Major

So how do we find this balance?

To get a sense of what this balance feels like try this.


With your pelvis in a neutral position; with the sitting bones pointing downwards, sit up-right then bend forward until you can feel gravity pulling you forward. Relax a little to allow yourself to feel this heaviness.  Now rock backwards until you can feel heavy over in that direction.

Repeat this, forward and back, again and again, each time reducing the amount of movement  and staying aware of the transition from being pulled forward to being pulled back: Like an upside down pendulum. Eventually your rocking will stop. That is the point of balance.


Now lift up a little as though you are being pulled up by a string at the crown of your head…and release.


You can repeat this with your neck and head.

The effect of the height  and angle of your cushion or stool or bench

As we have discussed so far, the body is supported by our spine and its surrounding muscles.  The way we sit is also influenced by the degree of flexibility we have in the muscles around the hips and knees and ankles.  Some people can sit right on the ground cross legged or in lotus posture and some have very restricted movement in the area: The difference is flexibility of the muscles.


The diagram to the right shows the main muscles involved in sitting (From Wiki article on Hip Flexors).  The flexibility of these can sometimes be increased by stretching and strengthening exercises. These for example  The psoas muscles also provide stability.( See references). This role of the psoas is taked about in this article on sitting at your computer by Liz Koch.


For comfort, your seat needs to fit your body including its shape (natural curve of the spine), height and flexibility. Perhaps, in an ideal world, we wouldn’t need something to sit on.


If your seat is too high, your pelvis will be tilted forward. This moves your centre of gravity forward. To compensate this you naturally lean back. In leaning back your lower back will become more curved and put under strain.  The curve of your upper back can also become more pronounced.  In turn, this tension is likely to be reflected by your mental states.


If your seat is too low, the opposite happens; The pelvis tilts backwards, the lower back and upper back curve forward more, producing a low energy feeling.


The tilt of the seat should follow the line of your legs; too steep will have the same effect as too high.  A too shallow tilt is likely to be uncomfortable as the edge of the seat cuts into the underside of your legs.


The Kindseat enables you to adjust the height in small amounts to get it just right (for you today) and the tilt naturally follows the line of the legs.  The tilt can also be changed by tilting the pelvis.


By Beth ohara (Own work)
[GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons